Constitutions in the Kingdom of Hanover
After the re-creation of the country Hanover on 9 November 1813 all French westfaelischen and offices were taken back and the division of power were cancelled. On 23 August 1814 acuh the progressive westfaeliche system of government for invalid was then explained.
In the line lock to Hanover on it, on 15 December 1814, a provisional general status meeting met. This represented the whole kingdom under fortbestand of the Provinziallandschaften. It had very with the special interests of the aristocracy too fight towards, whose controlling influence was again manufactured in its entirety. However on 17 December 1819 one of the king oktroyierte condition was introduced, which replaced now the past status meeting. With their a parliamentary system of two Houses was created. The first chamber became completely of landed property ends the aristocracy, which second of the cities control. The farmer status was represented in none both the chamber.
George visited IVTH as a prince regent 1821 Hanover and after 66jaehriger absence of the ruler in the country with rejoicing was received; but it did not undertake anything, in order to free for a modern, progressive development the way. In the opposite: The resignation of the liberal of secret cabinet advice August William deer mountain in the year 1821 sealed the victory of the aristocracy sets. Their mental leader was reactionary Ernst Herbert realm count von Muenster. Opposite it the opposition was under Carl Stueve. Their targets were the discharge of the farmer status and the participation of the citizens and land inhabitants in power. After that Paris Julirévolution, rebellions in the neighboring country Hessen Kassel (cure Hessen), smaller unrests in Osterode and Goettingen followed. This caused the even king William IV. arrived at the government to giving in: In the following year the Prime Minister count Muenster was appointed to dismiss and in the country very popular the duke Adolf Friedrich of Cambridge the viceroy and governor in Hanover. two fundamental new laws entered into force to 1833: the constitution influenced by Friedrich Cristoph Dahlmann and the replacement order hauptsaeclich arranged by Stueve. This new constitution maintained the parliamentary system of two Houses, opened now in addition, farmers beside the citizen the acces to the second chamber. Additionally a limited ministerial responsibility was introduced.
In the year 1837 William deceased to IVTH - king of Hanover and Great Britain without leibliche inheriting. Here now the personnel union between Hanover and Great Britain ended after 123 years. In England Queen Victoria mounted the throne, where however in Hanover its uncle became Ernst August, Herzog von Cumberland, Koenig. It was called intelligent politicians and courageous soldier, but opened it its government with the removal of the constitution. The members of the liberals opposition denied it vehement that the king had the right to remove the condition. Most Staatsrechtler saw a coup d'etat since also after the right of the German federation the king was not allowed to set an existing without co-operation of the status meeting out of strength. But Ernst August saw itself concerning in the right and to the best one of its country; he had for months thought about this resolution. Filters Goettinger professors inserted now with reference to the oath of allegiance protest: William Albrecht, Freidrich Christoph Dahlmann, Heinrich Ewald, Georg Gottfried Gervinus, Jacob & William Grimm and William Eduard weber. The king ordered its removal from office. Dahlmann, Gervinus and Jacob Grimm were referred abroad, in addition, the others and a large part of their students left Hanover.
Only these measures arranged the remaining German countries to the protest; however Austria and Prussia placed themselves behind Ernst August and ensured for the fact that all requests were reduced for the protection of the constitution.
The controversy between the liberal opposition and that extremely rights under Johann Herrman Detmold ebbed under mutual giving way. 1840 the national constitutional law created, which modified little in the composition of the individual chambers, however the ministerial responsibility abolished. As a reactionary the verschrieenen king succeeded it surprisingly 1848 the storm of the Révolution to intercept, by it after English model the leader of the opposition, Carl Stueve, when Minister of the Interior appointed into the March Ministry of the count Alexander Levin of Bennigsen.
Now Stueve could numerous reforms until 1850 execute and prepare: Removal of the status privileges, abolishment of the censorship, public of the law and administration, mechanism of courts of assizes, a new city order and still much more. The first chamber was now also not more serves domain of the aristocracy, but turned around the rural basic owners.
After dismissal of the Ministers under Bennigsen Stueve (October 1850) Ernst August left the reforms under the moderate Ministry Muenchhausen in strength, approved of by him.
King Ernst August son and successor George V. was since its 14. Lebensjahr blindly. He was a talented prince and promoter of the arts, but believed felsenfest in its Gottesgnadentum. The result were a frequent course change and a substantial wear of Ministers. But it led several of the reforms initiated by Stueve to end. However it came to unrest in the home policy, because the opposition the knight shank tried to again-conquer the first chamber. Unfortunately they discovered count Otto von Bismarck open ears, who ensured with confidential discussions with king George V. with the Prussian Member of the Bundestag that one returned as far as possible to the national constitutional law from 18409. The liberal opposition under Rudolf of Bennigsen was pursued on the sharpest.
Nach Unruhen setzt der König dann noch einmal ein liberales Ministerium ein, bevor er 1865 wieder zu einem mehr und mehr konservativen Kurs überwechselte.
Die Schlacht bei Langensalza am 27. Juni 1866 gewannen zwar die hannöverschen Truppen, aber trotzdessen dankte der König ab, um einen größeren Krieg zu verhindern; am 3. Oktober 1866 erließ König Wilhelm II. von Preußen -unrechtmäßig- das Annexionspatent über Hannover (näheres auf der entsprechenden Seite dieser Homepage).
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